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d.e.r专访丨Kelly Lee 李曼婷——对有争议话题的建筑学立场

来源:未知 发布时间:2019-05-29 15:46 浏览量:

designeraer no.002

Kelly Lee 李曼婷

The University of Edinburgh 建筑学本科

Oxford school of Architecture 建筑学硕士,RIBA part2

建筑设计师

ASRI - 数字研究负责人 /aarc - 项目负责人

现居北京

About Kelly Lee

Kelly,热爱建筑,喜欢思考,运动、旅游、展览、艺术,是个热爱生活的姑娘。对建筑充满执念的女孩,先后经历国际设计周策展、焦虑的建筑策展、牛津大学春晚创意总监、Santander葡萄牙建筑作品策展等。加上豪张思、北建院、AECOM、AARC等事务所的工作经历,对她来说都是不可或缺的珍贵体验,更让她蜕变成了可以独当一面的优秀建筑师。

Kelly在学习工作中结交了很多专业界的大咖,平时喜欢把自己的研究想法分享出来和大家共同讨论思考,这对于她来说是完美有幸福的建筑生活方式。今天时机有幸邀请Kelly做客d.e.r专访,一起对话关于她的有趣的新思考。

对有争议的话题的建筑学立场

为什么要写这个?

我认为一个建筑师最重要的不仅是专业的学识,全面的技能,更重要的应该是对自己,对他人的认识,理解与关怀。建筑不仅仅的的形式上的狂欢,也要表达社会对差异性,甚至”标准“的审视和包容。写这篇文章不是在定义或是执拗于什么,只是建筑师在我意识中的社会引导性极高,难免在此冠冕堂皇一番义正言辞。

对有争议的话题的建筑学立场

An Architectural position towards Controversial topics

Kelly (Manting) Li

建筑师在建-筑

About Architects doing Architecture

与剧院、图书馆、购物中心等日常功能正常的地方不同,有些地方的日常功能因其存在而受到争议或批评,比如堕胎中心、死囚区或整容诊所,尤其是后者的市场上最近正在蓬勃发展。

Unlike places such as theatre, library, or shopping mall withregular daily functions, there are some places where its daily functions aredebated or criticized upon for its existence, such as an abortion centre, deathrow or plastic surgery clinic which has boomed in the market recently.

建筑师一直试图利用他们的技能和时间来解决或改善社会需求或自然气候等问题。因此,尽管有些情况的出现不是全世界所有人都认可或接受的,但毫无疑问,这些情况所造成的二次后果仍然存在并亟待需要通过某种方式推进解决的决心,而建筑师,在这种情况下的参与就是空间设计。更好的设计空间会对特定的用户群体产生深远的影响,而这正是建筑师在社会中的基本角色,不管某些境遇是否合理存在或在道德认知上正确。有些社会性的问题,有时候是无法由个人来改变的,它们是由更复杂的原因引起的,这些原因可能不会被境遇外的人理解,甚至当事人也不一定可以看清。它们需要由当局、社区和社会本身与时俱进地发展。如前所述,建筑师应该秉持着该角色的社会责任不仅对经济弱势群体,也应该对那些受公认有争议的问题的受害者, 不计数的他们的种族、性别和国籍进行人到考虑,就像医生拯救所有性命,建筑师应当无偏袒为不同的使用者设计更适宜感受使用的良好的空间.

Architects have been trying to use their skills and time tosolve any social or climatic issues. Therefore, although some issues are notrecognised or acceptable by everyone all around the world, there are stillundoubtedly existing issues that need solutions, in this case - spaces. Betterdesign spaces will influence the certain group of users profoundly and this iswhen architects contribute to solve social issues, regardless of the issues’recognitions. The issues, sometimes cannot be changed by individuals. They arecaused by more complicated reasons which might not be seen by people outsidethe context or even not everyone inside the context. They need to be developedin times by authorities, communities, societies themselves. As mentionedbefore, the social responsibilities thatarchitects should carry are not only towards the economically underprivilegedgroups but also towards those who are affected by the under recognizedcontroversial issues, just like howdoctors should save everyone without taking in count of the patients’ race,gender and nationalities.

蒙特利尔生物圈

了解引起争议的原因吗?了解同一问题在世界不同地区如何被认为是“有争议的”和“无争议的”

Understandthe reason of being controversial? Understanding how is the same issueconsidered ‘controversial’ and ‘ non controversial’ in different parts of theworld.

随着全球化进程的加快和广泛发展,建筑服务作为经济属性的一种表现形式,从西向东、从北向南不断流动。今天,建筑师们在全球化中面临着巨大的挑战,这比过去的全球化要复杂得多。在全球化时期,建筑师主要在美国、英国等少数帝国工作。一切都有严格的等级制度。“帝国的中心代表着文明,而帝国的外围则不是。”(Davis,M., 2009)人们对来自帝国中心的任何东西都毫无疑问。然而,随着全球化的发展,这种现象已经逐渐改变。如今,等级制度被削弱或重新排序,导致所有文化都处于某种动态平衡状态。作为一种完整的生活方式,文化不受外界批评的影响(Davis, M., 2009)?

With the faster and wider development of globalisation,architectural services, as a form of economic attributor, has been fluid fromthe West to the East and the North tothe South. Today, the architects are facing big challenge in globalisationwhich are way more complicated than the global-trotting past. In global-trotting period, architects were majorlyworking in a few empires, such as United State and United Kingdom. Everythingwas with strong hierarchy. ‘The imperial centre stood for civilisation, theimperial periphery did not.’ (Davis, M., 2009) People have no doubt on anythingfrom the imperial centre. However, with the development of globalisation, thisphenomenon has been changed gradually. Nowadays, the hierarchy has beendiminished or re-ordered, leading to a somehow dynamic equilibrium status forall the culture. ‘Understood as complete ways of life, cultures are immune fromcriticism from outside (Davis, M., 2009)

争论的发生主要是由于东西方发展的不平衡,造成了不同程度的开放。人们对某些问题更加固执己见,从而放大了这些问题。因此,当一个问题在全球不同的地方讨论时,肯定会有很多不同的观点和意见。特别是全球化带来了一系列更加开放的讨论。这将间接影响了建筑业服务,以及建筑空间的用户优先级现在正处于一个大问号之下。

The controversy happens mainly because the uneven development inwestern world and eastern world which cause different degree of openness .People have been more opinionated towards certain issues and thus magnifyingthe issues. Therefore, when a same issue is discussed in these different partsof the globe, assuredly there will be a lot of varied views and opinions uponthe issue. Especially, the globalisation brings up series more open discussion.This will indirectly affect the architectural services as well as the affecteduser’s priority are now under a big question mark .

美容外科诊所、人流中心、死囚区、变性治疗诊所等都是当今存在的最具争议的地方。由于不同文化的价值观不同,它的存在有着更深层次的原因。有些地方的存在是国家法律法规规定的结果。这些问题可能是逐渐改变和发展起来的。这是一个不可避免的事实,这些都是存在的和不可避免的问题,一群人将不得不使用一些特别设计的空间,以尽量减少和最终解决他们的个人复杂性。

Aesthetic Surgery Clinic, Abortion Centre, Prison Death Row ,Gender reassignment clinic etc are the most controversial places in theirexistence. Because of different values from different cultures , there aredeeper reason for its existence. Existence of some places are the results ofnational law or regulation. Possibly, these issues have been changed anddeveloped gradually. This is aninevitable fact that these are existing and unavoidable issues where a group ofpeople will have to use some specially designed spaces to minimize andeventually solve their personal complications.

例如,世界各地关于堕胎的法律大相径庭,堕胎的初衷也因人而异,犯罪受害者的意外怀孕,政策不允许下的新生命,等等。堕胎的合理性及伦理性得到讨论。但据统计,全世界约有三分之二的女性可以合法堕胎。例如中国大陆,由于独生子女政策的刚刚结束,并没有普遍的法律来限制任何形式的堕胎。因此,人流中心作为建筑需要容纳的一种功能存在,服务着流动的特殊人群。

For example , laws about abortion are varied dramaticallythrough the globe. But according to statistics, around two third female all over the world can take abortion legally. Inmainland China, there is no general law to restrict abortion of any kindbecause of just-stop one-child-policy. Therefore, better design of abortioncentre is in need to be delivered.

戏谑的说“如今都是看脸的世界”,整容手术也因此在蓬勃发展中。人们一直在争论整容手术是否合乎道德,当然这是基于他们所接受的不同价值观。最具代表性的是,在韩国,整容手术只是人们经历的另一种普通程序。由于20世纪末的朝鲜战争,大量的受伤者的面部结构和外观都需要进行重建。这是整形手术的开端——韩国正在进行整形手术和美容手术。由于这个文化的根源,韩国人更容易接受和包容受过整容的人以及其在本土发展的势在必得。另外,韩语中的“整容手术”并不具有任何负面的意义的映射,不像在英语或者中文语境中,整容的词汇涵盖着“制造”或“假”的深层解读, 而韩语对“整容手术”的直接翻译却是“可能的改变”。也正是因为这种语言文化的缘故,韩国人对“美容手术”的认知更多的是“作为一种工具来增强他们所拥有的”,而不是为了纯粹的自我满足和他人评论而伪装。但必须承认的是,现在的韩国是一个以形象为中心的国家,无论是总统还是普通老百姓(说句极为讽刺的题外话是,2014年首尔船难时当任总统朴槿惠因为做头发失踪数小时。)。任何工作申请明文规定都必须附上照片,很多公司的求职要求上也会明确宣布,“你的外表将改变我们对你求职申请的看法。”“在如此竞争激烈的就业市场下,毕业生们都在寻找能让自己的外表更加出众的所有标准,这使得首尔成为人均整容率最高的整容之都。”如前所述,种种社会文化历史的综合因素形成的极具韩国特色的“整容文化”受着与之有巨大的文化其他社会的严厉批评。

Cosmetic surgery is booming all over the world. People have beendebating if cosmetic surgery is ethical or not, of course based on thedifferent values that they were raised by. The most representative is that inSouth Korea, cosmetic surgery is just another ordinary procedure that people gothrough. Due to of Korean War in late 20th Century, there were a large group ofinjured victims whose faces had to be reconstructed on both its structure andappearance. This is the very start of plastic surgery - reconstructive surgeryand aesthetic surgery happening in South Korea. Due to this root, Korean peopleare more acceptable and open minded towards plastic surgery and also in koreanwords , ‘plastic surgery’ does not have any negative meaning like how wegenerally perceived it as ‘fabricated’ or ‘fake’, if it is directly translated, it is more likely to mean transforming. Because of the korean language,Korean recognition of ‘aesthetic surgery’ is more as a tool to enhance what theyhave rather than faking something for pure ego. Another reason being that SouthKorea is a very image centric country . Along with this, photo is compulsory tobe attached on resume for any job application. This policy is just thecompanies blatantly announcing to all their job applicators that ‘ yourappearance will change how we perceive your job application.’ Under such competitive job market, graduatesare seeking all the measurements that can make their appearance stand out more,which resulted in Seoul becoming the cosmetic surgery capital with the highestper capita rate. Huge culture differences as mentioned before make South Korea’s booming cosmetic surgery marketbe heavily criticised from other societies .

什么是道德

What is Ethics?

每个建筑师在为客户和用户群体设计时都应该有自己的职业道德和原则。伦理就是道德,道德原则支配着建筑师的良知,使其受到社会问题的舆论和社会批评的风向的评判。它也是一个哲学领域(试图理解道德,包括第二个意义上的伦理,作为一种理性的事业)。伦理对于他们可能是什么,这是非常主观并基于个人思考之上的产物,就像各家伦理学推论的发展一样,亚里士多德认为阻碍伦理推理是激情;而对康德来说,是自身利益;对尼采来说,是避免痛苦的意志,或者更准确地说,我们因为“在道德问题上会感到困惑”这样的事实而羞愧。Harpham, G.G, 2009)“我受谁监管?””“谁也没有;你受理性的支配,也就是说,受你自己的支配。”

(Harpham,G.G 2009)

Every architect should has their ethic and principle ondesigning for clients and its user group. Ethic is morality, the moralprinciple that dominate the conscience of an architect to encounter communityissues. It is name for a field of philosophy (to attempt to understandmorality, including ethics in the second sense, as a ration undertaking) too.It is very subjective and personal reflection on what their ethic could be,just as the development of ethics derived by Aristotle, ethical reasoning wasoccluded by passion; for Kant, by self-interest; for Neitzsche, it is the willto avoid the pain, or, more accurately, the humiliation of the truth thatconfuses us on ethical issues. (Harpham, G.G, 2009) ‘By whom am I regulated?’‘By no one; you are regulated by Reason, which is to say, by yourself.’(Harpham, G.G 2009)

ADPSR(建筑师、设计师和社会责任规划师)提议修改AIA对其成员行为的规范:“不得设计用于执行或折磨或其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的行为或惩罚的空间,包括长期单独监禁”。(Zeiger, M. 2015) AIA(美国建筑学会)前主席Helene Combs Dreiling透露了专门为请愿而成立的特别小组的商讨结果,“这不是我们作为一个集体想要确定的事情。有根深蒂固信念的成员可能会避免设计那些建筑类型,而把它留给他们的同事。”Dreiling女士还说,“建筑师是自我选择的,这取决于他们认为自己能在哪些方面做出最好的贡献。“尽管联合国和其他国际人权组织对AIA的决定表示失望,但AIA仍然认为,“拟议的修正案将对AIA现有的道德规范增加‘强制执行’的要素,即成员国在其所有职业努力中都应维护人权。”Dreiling女士解释说,该规范准则应讨论“更多地是关于可取的做法和态度,而不是谴责”。它不应该“与建筑师的实践方式、处事态度、对待客户的表现有关”,而应该告诉建筑师应该构建什么。(Lavender, G. 2015)

ADPSR (Architects, Designers and Planners for SocialResponsibility) proposed an amendment of AIA conduct that AIA members “shallnot design spaces intended for execution or for torture or other cruel,inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, including prolonged solitaryconfinement.” (Zeiger, M. 2015) AIA (American Institute of Architecture) formerpresident, Helene Combs Dreiling revealed the results from special panel set uppurposely for the plea, “It’s just not something we want to determine as acollective. Members with deeply embedded beliefs will avoid designing thosebuilding types and leave it to their colleagues,” Ms. Dreiling elaborated.“Architects self-select, depending on where they feel they can contributebest.” Although United Nations and other international human rightsorganisation expressed disappointment on AIA decision, AIA still believe that“the proposed amendment would add ‘enforceable language’ to an existing AIAethics rule that states ‘Member should uphold human rights in all theirprofessional endeavors.’” Ms Dreiling elaborated that the code is “more aboutdesirable practices and attitudes than condemnation”. It should not have “to dowith the way architect practice, treat each other, perform in the eyes of ourclients” rather than telling architects what to build. (Lavender, G. 2015)

AIA前主席Helene Combs Dreiling

许多参与监狱设计的建筑师表示,“建筑师作为一种职业和行业,有责任为每个人、为整个公众——包括囚犯——创造更好的空间。”KMD设计了鹈鹕湾监狱安全屋单元,作为一个单独监禁单元,关注囚犯的人性。虽然有许多设计特征是压迫性的,但他们仍然设计了一些感性的特征,比如“穿孔的单元门和走廊上的天窗”。(Stott,R. 2013)

Many architects involved in prison design stated that “it is theresponsibility of architects as a profession and industry to make better spacesfor everyone, for the entire public - including inmates.” KMD designed PelicanBay Security Housing Unit, regarded as a solitary confinement unit with theirconcern of humanity for inmates. Although there are many design characteristicsare oppressive, they still design sensible features, such as ‘perforated celldoors and skylights in the corridors’. (Stott, R. 2013)

KMDdesigned Pelican Bay Security Housing Unit

KMDdesigned Pelican Bay tough hall

这是一个令人信服的例子,尽管空间的功能在讨论中存在争议,但建筑师们正在尽最大努力使空间更好地使用。如果建筑师拒绝设计特定的空间,而让设计水平较低的工作人员来做,在某种程度上,建筑师是在给用户带来风险,让他们承受可能糟糕的设计空间。在某种程度上,建筑师的行为将导致新空间更加不人道。

This is an convincing example that architects are trying theirbest to make places better to use although the function of the space iscontroversial on discussion. If architects refuse to design certain space andleave to the crew with less design skill, in a way, architects are putting riskon users to suffer possible badly design spaces. To some extent, architects’behaviour will lead the new space even more inhumane.

人类通过建筑的历史在其生产上留下了时间的痕迹。(Shah, V., 2012)只要全球化继续发生,城市就一定会对人类的需求做出回应,并保持下去。建筑中有争议的类型应该被认真对待,因为它即时即刻地正在发生,无论用户群体有多小,他们都是社会和文化的一部分。在城市中的PEST(政治、环境、社会、科技)问题的发展无一避免地会引起争议,那么战略性城市发展不仅需要为不可预见的情况做好准备,并接受不同种族社会文化差异所致的行为,为它们(这些事件的阶段性结果)提供更好的环境。

Humanity leaves traces along with time on its production throughthe history of architecture. (Shah, V., 2012) Cities are bound to respond tohuman need and sustain as long as globalisation take place. The architecture ofcontroversial typology should be taken seriously because it is happening, nomatter how small the user group is. They are part of the society and culturethat act simultaneously with time. Controversy is inevitable in the developmentof PEST (political, environment, social and technology) issues of a city.Strategic cities need to prepare for unforeseen circumstances and accept theindifference of human social behaviour by providing better place for them.

建筑在特定的历史时间轴上,对政治、思想、潮流、经济都留下了痕迹。因此,建筑中亘古不变的一点是通过为或多或少的人提供具有伟大意图的空间来服务大众。基于此,它同时应该强调可操作性和它的目标,而不能因为它是标志性的、纪念性的、激进的或看起来很酷的建筑就放弃使用的本质。(Thorne, M. from Shah, V. Interview, 2012) Fuller曾经说过:“当我处理一个问题的时候,我从来没有想过它的美,但是当我完成的时候,如果解决方案不漂亮,我就知道我错了。”

Architecture leaves trace on the political, thoughts, trend,economics at a particular timeline in history. Hence the essence ofarchitecture is to serve publicity by providing buildings with great intentionfor both majority or minority. It should emphasize on the workability and itsobjective, rather than just being iconic, monumental, radical or cool-lookingpiece of architecture. (Thorne, M. from Shah, V. Interview, 2012) Fuller oncesaid, “When I am working on a problem, I never think about the beauty but wheni finished, if the solution is not beautiful, I know I am wrong.”

建筑师在建筑实践中有绝对的自由,可以根据自己的伦理、信仰和主张来选择建造什么。但是,对有争议群体的建筑空间和治疗行为应予以干预,而非袖手旁观。建筑师应该以专业的素养和视角重新考虑争议性的建筑对未来生活发展的潜力和重要性。

Architects have absolute freedom to choose what to build basedupon their ethics, beliefs and proposition in their architecture practice.However, the actions of building and treating for the controversial for certainpurpose group should be intervened. Architects should reconsider the potentialand the importance of controversial architecture to the development of a betterliving for tomorrow.

参考文献

Davis, M (2009) Has globalism made architecture’s professionalethics obsolet. (Ed.) Architecture, Ethics and Globalization. P38. Canada: Routledge.

Harpham, G.G (2009) Architecture and ethics: 16 points. (Ed.)Architecture, Ethics and Globalization. P38. Canada: Routledge.

Lavender, G. (2015) Should Architects Design Buildings Used ForExecutions And Isolation?

Shah, V. (2012) The Role of Architecture in Humanity's Story.

Stott, R. (2013) Should Architects Follow a Code of Ethics?

Zeiger, M (2015) Tough Cell: Architectus 'Involvement in prisondesign'

感谢Kelly分享给d.e.r专访的有趣内容,她对于建筑师的观点也值得深思。作为建筑师,最重要的不仅是专业的学识,全面的技能,更重要的应该是对自己,对他人的认识,理解与关怀。

designeraer d.e.r专访 第二期圆满结束。下周时将带来全新的d.e.r专访主题以及有趣的观点,敬请期待。